A Brief History Of Google Android Operating System
By that way, smartphone have become so popular among mobile users.
However, From Bangla Books PDF, We've covered an article on the history of Android operating system.
The History of Android
Android is an operating system that is used to accumulate software used to run a mobile phone. In this system, Middle wire and all the application reside together. Generally, this mobile operating system, as we know it by the short form OS, is developed on Linux Cornell.
At present giant Google is making and developing this system. Android is the highest sold smartphone operating system in the world. Though the history of Android didn’t start with Google.
The History of Android started far back in October, 2003 when Android Incorporate was found in Paulo Alto, California by Andy Ruben (Co-founder of DANGER), Rich Mainer (Co-founder of Wild Fire Communications), Nik Siers (Former Vice President of T-Mobile) and Chris White (Head of Design and Interface, Web TV). As all the founders were working for different companies, they used to ran Incorporate secretly.
Primary purpose of Incorporate:
The primary purpose of Incorporate was to develop an operating system for the digital camera. Later they realised that the market was not big and started to concentrate on the smartphone operating system development. The target was to compete with other operating systems available at that time, Symbian and Windows Mobile from Microsoft.
Google Takes Over:
As all the work and maintenance of Incorporate was secret, the founders couldn’t take a loan from any commercial bank and when they were at a financial stake. Google bought Incorporate on August 17, 2005, keeping the main workforce of Incorporate (Andy Ruben, Chris White and Rich Mainer) employed.
When Google bought Incorporate, no details was received. Many thought that Google might launch some new kind of mobile phone. A team lead by Ruben, developed Linux Cornell as the mobile platform while working for Google.
Google marketed this platform through the telecom companies, with a condition to continue updating the platform. Google also mentioned of some hardware elements and software partners that were of open source. Many tech market specialists thought that Google would enter the mobile communication market. That was December 2006.
BBC and World Street Journal mentioned that Google wants to run their search engine and web applications in mobile phone and they are working on it. Rumours started to run through papers and online that Google is making their own mobile device. Information Week, a tech business magazine revealed in September 2007 that some mobile applications have been patented by Google.
Starting off the Open Handset Alliance
On November 5, 2007, Open Handset Alliance started its journey where Broadcom Corp., Google, HTC, LG, Intel, Motorolla, Marvel Technology, Qualcom, Envidia, Samsung Electronics, T-mobile, Texas Instrument and Sprint Nextel came to a common platform to develop open source mobile handset platform.
On the same day, Open Handset Alliance launched their first product- Android, built on Curnell 2.6.25., and the distribution of Android was also started with 80 companies related to hardware, software, and telecom. All worked together to build an ideal open source mobile platform. Most of the Android codes developed by Google comes under Apace and Open Source license.
The first commercially released smartphone
The first commercially released smartphone, using Android was HTC Dream, that came in the market on October 22, 2008. New members to join Open Handset Alliance On December 9, 2008, 14 new companies joined the platform. Asustech Computer Incorporate, MRM Holdings, Jarmin LTD., Ethan Communication, Huawei Technologies, Softbank, Sony Ericson, Packetvideo, Toshiba Corp., and Vodaphone were among the new members.
In 2010, Google launched its Nexus series, run by Android operating system. This series was made with a partnership with different companies.
HTC lauched Nexus One, with partnering with Google. It was the first smartphone of the Nexus series. From then Google kept updating this device. Nexus 5 was made by LG, whereas, Nexus 7 (Tablet) was made by Asus.
Google mainly launched the machine of Nexus Series as the core product of Android Operating System. Because it was the new, updated and developed operating system that has features of hardware and software.
On March 13, 2013, Larry Page informed through a blog post that Andy Ruben has left the Android Section and joined another project ran by Google. And, Sundar Pichai, former Chief of Google Chrome department, has replaced him.
Starting from 2008 many updates of android has been tested and launched to upgrade and develop the system, to eradicate the flaws, to add new features, opportunities, and advantages.
Updates of Android
All the major updated versions of Android are named following English Alphabetical order- as, after the Cupcake 1.2 version of Android, the Donut 1.6 version was launched.
The Kitkat 4.4.4 version was developed to mitigate security related problems. It was launched on June 19, 2014, within a few days after launching Kitkat 4.4.3. Starting the Material Design, Lollypop 5.0 was launched on November 14, 2014.
Two more updated versions of Lollypop (5.0.1 and 5.0.2) were also launched after that to correct the technical flaws.
In 2014, Google launched Android One, which is enabled with the features of a smart phone. Mainly it was launched for the developers. the latest version of Android Operating System is included in the Android One, that is close to the core version of Android.
As per the news from March 3, 2015, Android 5.1, a new version has been launched only to use in some selected devices like Android One, Nexus 6 Tablet and Nexus 9 Tablet.
Hugo Barra appeared as the chief spokesman on behalf of the Android Team for three years during 2010-2013. He represented the team and all the products of Android in all the press conferences.
He used to make reports on the entire Android Ecosystem that covers hardware and software. He has been seen to lead the launching press conferences of Honeycomb, Ice Cream Sandwich, Jelly Bean, KitKat, Nexus 4 and Nexus 5 smartphones, Nexus 7 and Nexus 10 tablets, Google products- Google Now and Google Voice Search.
In 2013, he left the Android Team and joined Shaomi, smartphone manufacturing company of China.
Android market is the marketplace for all the software used in Android mobiles. In all the Android phones, an application named Android Market is installed from the beginning that enables users to browse and download software.
Third parties also can make software and the market continue to market that software.
As per reports from December, 2010there are more than 2, 00,000games, software and widget available at the Android Market. On 2011 Google declared that almost 3 billion Android applications have been installed.
The Android Market Application can only be used in those mobiles that match the Close-Source of Google. The market releases software that is compatible with the mobile device of the users. The market also makes things right if any application developer decides not to run the application in any country or continent due to commercial limitations.
Users can install applications using APK file or going to other alternative markets. Like Apple, Google didn’t restrict their android app market. They allowed others to release apps in the market freely.
Versions and updates of Android
The up gradation ofAndroid has been continued from the very beginning. Before commercial release of Android, there were at least two versions of android that were used internally- Alpha and Beta. Within the Alpha update, three more versions were experimented by the code names of Astro-Boy, Bender, and R2-D2.
Here is a short description of the major updates having various code-names.
Android 1.5 Cupcake was released on April 27, 2009, featuring new mobile enabled features like YouTube and Picasa.This was API Level 3.
Android 1.6 Donut was released on September 15, 2009, with features like voice search, multilingual speech synthesis.This was API Level 4.
Android 2.0 Éclairand Android 2.0.1 Éclair were released on October 26, and December 3, of the year 2009. They were API Level 5 and API Level 6.
With some minor bug fixes, Android 2.1 Éclairgot released on January 12, 2010. This was API level 7.
Android 2.2-2.2.3 Froyo got released in four steps starting from May 21, 2010, till November 21, 2011. All were under API level 8.
API level 9 updates were Android 2.3-2.3.2 Gingerbread. These were released on December 6, 2010, to January 2011.
Android 2.3.3-2.3.7 Gingerbread was API level 10 updates, that were released from February 2011- September, 2011.
Android 3 - 3.2.6 Honeycomb was released on February 22, 2011, to February 2012. All the versions were released to use Tablets and big screen devices more easily.Honeycomb 3.2 was used to run Google TV. These were API level 11- API level 13.
Android 4.0-Android 4.0.4 Ice Cream Sandwich, API level 14 and API level 15 were released on October 18, 2011, to March 29, 2012.
Android 4.1 Jelly Bean came in the market on July 9, 2012, and kept updating till October 3, 2013, with 4.3.1 Jelly Bean. These were API level 16, 17 and 18.
Android 4.4 KitKat – 4.W.2 KitKat were released from October 31, 2013- October 21, 2014. These were API level 19 and 20. W remarks here wearable extensions to be used in wearable devices like Google Smart Watch.
Android 5.0.0 -5.1.x Lollipop versions were released on November 3, 2014. These were API level 21 and 22.
Android 6.0- 6.0.1 Marshmallow is the latest Android update that is API level 23 and got released during October and December of 2015.
The development of this operating system, the primary target of the lost Incorporate finally got its goal through Google. Android is the highest used operating system in the world.
Many people have worked and still are working to develop this developed system so that the information technology becomes easier, more sustainable to the mass people.
The open source network and creating a market for software, widgets usable in Android was another great development in the history of Android. That really opened a door for thousands of developers and tech lovers to work in a common platform, for a common goal.