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A Brief History of Computer & Computing System

ComputerThe History of Computer: The word Computer is derived from Greek word Compute which means to calculate. And Computer is the machine to calculate.

But a computer is not just only a computing machine.

The computer is such a machine that takes information and presents them by examining through various processes.

Mathematics and computer have a great impact on the rushing progress of Civilization.

Ancient History of Computer:
History of Computer refers back to the prehistoric ages. For long centuries after centuries countless people studied, experimented and created little many ideas that lead to the Computer, a smart machine, which we use today.

In the ancient period, people used to calculate using seashells, stones, rope-knots and after that many technics and machines were used to calculate.

But an ancient counting machine named ‘Abacus’ is considered to be the first calculation machine or system in the history of Computer.

The first abacus was invented around 500 B. C in China or Babylon.

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Computer History in 16th – 18th Century:
In 1616, Mathematician John Napier from Scotland used prints or lines to calculate that later lead to Logarithm.

Then in 1642, French Mathematician Blaze Pascal first invented a calculator the machine when he was 19 years old. He started to calculate numbers using gear or indents in a wheel. But it could only calculate by plus and minus.

Then in 1671, German Mathematician Gottfried Vaughn Libnis made a developed calculating machine based on Pascal's machine that could calculate by multiplication and divination. He named it the ‘Rechoning Machine’.

The machine was theoretically sound but it had technical flaws and failed to become popular.

Later in 1820, Tomas D Comer eradicated the technical flaws and made the ‘Rechoning Machine’ popular.

19th and 20th Century History of Computer:
At the starting of the 19th century, Charles Babbage started to outreach an idea of making and using a calculating machine that is programmable. He named it ‘Difference Engine’.

In 1833, he developed a more efficient calculating machine named the ‘Analytical Engine’ while working with the Difference Engine.

But Babbage couldn’t complete his work due to lack of required pieces of machinery and finance.

Computer Science really started the journey through theoretical and practical experiments by Alan Turing. From the mid part of the 20th century, development of modern computer was started. After the invention of the microprocessor, development of microcomputer paced up.

Various types of Personal Computers started to come across the market, varying from pattern and price.

With the growth of hardware production, various operating system and practical package programs also began to develop. Vast development of computer network and the Internet, and all the services and activities related to these also grew higher.

Many institutionalized and non-institutionalized computer learning and research centers have been founded to teach people on computer usage and maintenance.

At present, Computer and Information Technology or IT has captured a great part of business and commerce.

Employment sector is bending and relying more and more on the computer as days are passing by.

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Development of Computer:
In 1971, Intel Corp. invented microprocessor- a small chip that can be used in many ways. It changed the size and capability of computer radically.

It was a revolutionary invention in the history of the development of Computer. Computers based on microprocessor started to come to the market.

In 1981, IBM, International Business Machines Corporation, an American multinational technology and consulting corporation launched their Personal Computer in the market.

After that microchips were developed rapidly, acquiring higher capabilities. And that helped to make high-performance Computers.

From the very beginning, IBM didn’t draw any line for creating IBM compatible Computers and so that these computers became cheap and popular.

On the other hand, Apple Computer Incorporate, another technology machine company launched their Apple Macintosh Computer.

But as Apple restricted their computer for only Apple compatible uses, the price remained high and it didn’t become popular. But for some practical benefits and definite uses, Apple Computers became popular in the Printing sector. Apple – Macintosh was used widely in Print business.

Computer System: The system is a combination of some integrated elements that work jointly to reach a common goal. These are the elements of Computer System-
  1. Hardware
  2. Software
  3. Humanware or the User
  4. Data or Information 
Hardware:
All the external sized machines, machine parts, and devices are called Hardware.

Hardware can be divided into three main parts...
  1. Input– Mouse, Keyboard, Disk, Scanner, Card- reader, Digital Camera. 
  2. System Unit– Hard Disk, Motherboard, AGP card. 
  3. Output Machineries– Monitor, Printer, Disk, Speaker. 

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Software:
A series of commands given in computer to perform a task or solve a problem is called Program.

Program or programs that connect Computer Hardware and Users enabling hardware to work is called as Software.

Computer software's are mainly of two types.

System Software: System software balances all the works among various units of computer and enables the computer to work properly.

Application Software: Programs used to solve practical problems or to analyze data are called Application Software. Application software's are available in the market and usually these are known as package programs.

Humanware or User:
All the human involved in collecting data, preserving program or data, operating a computer or writing program, designing the systems, maintaining a balance between software and hardware are called jointly as Humanware.

Data or Information The smallest unit of Information is called Data. Data are some Raw Facts. There are two types of Data-
  1. Numeric and 
  2. Non-Numeric

Numeric data are numbers as 50, 100, 259 and Non-Numeric data are names of people, animal, country or nation, pictures, sounds, and dates.

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Operating System:
Operating System is such software that controls the execution of a computer program and also maintains scheduling, input/output control, debugging, accounting, compilation, storage assignment, data management, and other important tasks.

At present Dos, Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows 2007, Windows 2010, UNIX, Ubuntu, Mint, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1, Windows 10, and Linux.

Usage of Computer:
Computers are used in many ways and in almost every way. From home to business, from experiment to entertainment, a computer is used everywhere.

It has changed the dimension of communication. It is used for medical purposes and in space technology as well.

The computer has become the most used machine in modern days.

The computer in Geographical Usages: GIS – Computer is used in GIS Technology. Various information is added in the maps with this technology.

Types of Computer:
The computer can be divided into three types based on structure and custom...
  1. Analog Computer 
  2. Hybrid Computer
  3. Digital Computer 

Analog Computer: 
Analog Computer is such a computer that can measure a figure with the price of another figure. It can record frequently changing data as temperature, velocity. Speed meter used in a motor car is an example of Analog Computer.


Hybrid Computer:
A hybrid computer is the combination of the best qualities of an analog computer and digital computer. It is mainly used in scientific experiments.

This machine collects data in analog method and calculates in the digital method.

For example: Hybrid computers in Weather Center collect wind pressure, the temperature in analog method and gives weather forecast in the digital method.

Digital Computer:
Digital Computer presents everything with two types of electricity voltage.

This computer can calculate any kind of math through addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. All modern computers are the digital computer.

Digital Computer can be divided into 4 types based on size, ability, price and importance of usage.
  1. Micro Computer 
  2. Mini Computer 
  3. Mainframe Computer 
  4. Super Computer 

Micro Computer: Micro Computer can be divided into 2 types- 1. Desktop 2. Laptop 

Micro Computer is known as a personal computer or PC. It is formed with interface chip (Mother Board), one microprocessor, CPU, RAM, Rom, and Harddisk.

This type of computer is used in daily life. Macintosh, IBM PC are examples of Micro Computer.

Tablet Computer: Tablet Computer is another kind of Micro Computer. It is known as Palmtop Computer also. A tablet computer is touch screen enabled and runs with Android and Windows operating system.

Mini Computer: Mini Computer is such a machine that can be used by about 50 users at a time using a computer terminal. It is used in commercial business and laboratories.

Pdp 11ncrs/9290, ibms/36, ibm 9375 are some mini computers.

Super Computer: Computer with great speed and work capability is called Super Computer.

Its speed is almost 1 Billion Characters and has a huge memory space. Supers x11CRAY 1 are examples of Super Computer.

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History of Computer in Bangladesh:
The computer first came in Bangladesh in 1964 and it gained wide usage in the 1990’s. From the middle of this decade, information technology started to expand in Bangladesh.

The first computer in this land was a mainframe computer of IBM 1620 series and it was installed in 1964, at the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission Office, Dhaka. This was used to compute complex calculation.

In the 1960’s scientific experiments, banking, insurance work, business, and commerce started to expand quick in the country and also outside the country.

For this load of routine calculations raised and fast calculating was needed. It seemed impossible to complete all the calculations manually for the big companies.

So some big institutions like Habib Bank, United Bank installed expensive Mainframe Computers.

Habib Bank installed IBM 1401 Computer and United Bank installed IBM 1901 Computer. These 3rd Generation mainframe computers were mainly used for all the calculations and balance check in the banks.

In 1969, before the independence of Bangladesh, another computer, IBM 360 was installed in the Statistics Bureau.

Another Mainframe Computer was installed in Adamji Jute Mills.

Though in limited edition, but Computer Hardware and Software lessons were started to be included in the Mathematics, Physics, Applied Physics, Electrical and Electronics Engineering syllabuses at the University level.

From 1972, large-sized computers like IBM 370, IBM 4341 and IBM 9100 were installed in Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.

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The history of Computer and the development of this incredible machine have changed the world that we see and live today.

Millions of scientists, students and mathematicians worked a lifetime to develop different aspects of the computer.

No successful thing is built over a day and the history of Computer reminds that in every sphere.